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Oral Injury

Boy using a mouthguard

This collection of selected resources offers high-quality information about oral injury prevention and response. Use the tools below for further searching, or contact us for personalized assistance.

Key Facts

  Share these facts to help improve the oral health of pregnant women, children, adolescents, and their families.

  •  Pediatricians and primary care physicians can provide oral-injury–prevention messages while providing other injury-prevention messages during well-child visits. 1
  • Among infants and young children experiencing safety-gate-associated injuries, those under age 2 more often experienced injuries to the head and mouth, whereas those ages 2–6 more often experienced upper- and lower-extremity injuries. Increased efforts are needed to promote proper baby-gate use, ensure safety in product design, and increase awareness of age-related recommendations for use of babygates. 2
  • Oral health professionals should learn to recognize signs of child abuse, including physical abuse, and child neglect, which often involve injury to the mouth and teeth. Obtaining a thorough history is crucial to rule out possible physical abuse, especially when the oral health professional cannot reliably determine from a child or adolescent or his or her parent or guardian the cause of a potentially nonaccidental injury. 3
  • Most oral injuries sustained by high school athletes occur while athletes are not wearing mouthguards. 4
  • All high school athletes participating in a sport that places them at risk of sustaining an oral injury should be reminded to wear a mouthguard consistently in both competition and practice. 4
  • The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry encourages dentists to play an active role in educating the public in the use of protective equipment for the prevention of oro-facial injuries during sporting and recreational activities. 5
  • Oral-piercing-related injuries are a relatively infrequent yet significant reason for seeking care in hospital emergency departments (EDs). Overall, females are more likely than males to seek care for oral-piercing-related injuries in the ED, and females and males ages 14–22 are more likely than individuals in other age groups to seek such care in the ED. Infection at the piercing site and mucosal overgrowth of oral jewelry are the most frequent reasons for seeking care. 6

References

  1. Keels MA; American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Oral Health. 2014. Management of dental trauma in a primary care setting. Pediatrics 133(2):e466–e476.
  2. Cheng YW, Fletcher EN, Roberts KJ, McKenzie LB. 2014. Baby gate–related injuries among children in the United States, 1990–2010. Academic Pediatrics 14(3):256–261.
  3. Katner DR, Brown CE. 2012. Mandatory reporting of oral injuries indicating possible child abuse. Journal of the American Dental Association 143(10):1087–1092.
  4. Collins CL, McKenzie LB, Ferketich AK, Andridge R, Xiang H, Comstock RD. 2014. Dental injuries sustained by high school athletes in the United States, from 2008/2009 through 2013/2014 academic years. Dental Traumatology 31(5):1–7.
  5. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. 2016. Policy on prevention of sports-related orofacial injuries.
  6. Gill JB, Karp JM, Kopycka-Kedzierawski DT. 2012. Oral piercing injuries treated in United States emergency departments, 2002–2008. Pediatric Dentistry34(1):56–60.

OHRC Publications

This section contains OHRC-produced materials.


Details

Barzel R, Holt K. 2012. Child and adolescent oral health issues. Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, 8 pp

National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center
Georgetown University Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272

Telephone: (202) 784-9771
E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu
Website: https://www.mchoralhealth.org
Available from the website.

This fact sheet provides health professionals with information on issues related to child and adolescent oral health. Topics include dental caries, access to care, children and adolescents with special health care needs, dental sealants, fluorides, nutrition, injury and violence, and tobacco. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]


Details

Casamassimo P, Holt K, eds. 2016. Bright Futures: Oral health—Pocket guide (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, 90 pp

National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center
Georgetown University Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272

Telephone: (202) 784-9771
E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu
Website: https://www.mchoralhealth.org
Available from the website.

This pocket guide offers health professionals an overview of preventive oral health supervision for five periods—pregnancy and postpartum, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. The pocket guide is designed to help health professionals implement specific oral health guidelines during these periods. For each period, information about family preparation, risk assessment, interview questions, screening, examination, preventive procedures, anticipatory guidance, measurable outcomes, and referrals are discussed. The content aligns with Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents (4th ed.). [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]


Details

Holt K, Barzel R. 2010. Pain and suffering shouldn't be an option: School-based and school-linked oral health services for children and adolescents. Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, 4 pp

National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center
Georgetown University Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272

Telephone: (202) 784-9771
E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu
Website: https://www.mchoralhealth.org
Available from the website.

This fact sheet provides information about the importance of good oral health during childhood and adolescence. Topics include school readiness, disparities, oral trauma, nutrition, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, and school-based and school-linked oral health services. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

     


OHRC Library

This section contains recent materials, not including OHRC-produced materials.


Details

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Oral Health. 2016. Summary of infection prevention practices in dental settings: Basic expectations for safe care. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 43 pp

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Oral Health
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30329-4027

Telephone: (800) 232-4636
Secondary Telephone: (888) 232-6348
E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov
Website: http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth
Available from the website.

This document summarizes basic infection-prevention recommendations for all oral health care settings. Contents include information about the fundamental elements needed to prevent transmission of infectious agents and the importance of routine risk assessment. Topics include administrative measures, infection-prevention education and training, personnel safety, program evaluation, standard precautions, and water quality. The appendices contain a checklist for assessing overall policies and practices and for direct observation of personnel and patient-care practices; recommendations; and references and resources organized by topic area. A mobile application is also available.


Details

Deinard AS, Ginsberg M, Burke S. 2016. Intimate partner violence and elder maltreatment: Implications for the dental professional (rev. ed.). Dallas, TX: Procter and Gamble Company, 1 v

Procter and Gamble Company
Cincinnati, OH Telephone: (800) 543-2577
Website: http://www.dentalcare.com
Available from the website.

This continuing education course for oral health professionals provides information about intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment (EM) and outlines responsibilities for recognizing, reporting, treating, and preventing IPV and EM. Topics include the definition and signs and symptoms of IPV and EM, patterns of IPV, ethical and legal responsibilities, and intervention techniques. A tool that educators can use for creating a student assignment is also available.


Details

International Association of Dental Traumatology. 2016. Save your tooth. International Association of Dental Traumatology, 1 p

International Association of Dental Traumatology
RES Seminars Inc. 4425 Cass Street, Suite A San Diego, CA 92019

E-mail: IADT@dentaltrauma.com
Website: https://www.iadt-dentaltrauma.org
Available from the website.

This poster for parents and other caregivers describes steps for saving a permanent tooth after a blow to the mouth. Topics include what to do if a tooth is broken or knocked out. The poster is available in Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Tamil, Turkish, and Vietnamese.


Details

Jessee SA, Deinard AS. 2016. Child abuse and neglect: Implications for the dental professional (rev. ed.). Dallas, TX: Procter and Gamble Company, 1 v

Procter and Gamble Company
Cincinnati, OH Telephone: (800) 543-2577
Website: http://www.dentalcare.com
Available from the website.

This continuing-education course for oral health professionals provides information about child abuse and neglect and outlines responsibilities for recognizing, reporting, treating, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Topics include the problem, incidence, etiology, and long-term effects of child maltreatment; the dentist's role in intervention; identifying neglect and physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; assessment (history taking and diagnosis); and treating orofacial and dental trauma. A tool that educators can use for creating a student assignment is also available.


Details

Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, Oral Health Program. 2014. Dental health guide for school nurses. Jefferson City, MO: Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, 11 pp

Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, Oral Health Program
P.O. Box 570
Jefferson City, MO 65102-0570

Telephone: (573) 751-6400
Fax: (573) 751-6010
E-mail: info@health.mo.gov
Website: http://health.mo.gov/living/families/oralhealth/index.php
Available from the website.

This booklet is designed to aid school nurses in the effective treatment of minor oral health emergencies. Topics include dental first aid supplies; inflamed or irritated gum tissue, fever blisters, cold sores, and canker sores; toothache; prolonged or recurrent bleeding after an extraction; broken or displaced tooth; traumatic avulsion (tooth knocked out of socket); possible jaw dislocation or fracture; orthodontic problems and emergencies; objects wedged between teeth; lacerated lip or tongue; and tooth eruption pain. Information about the eruption and shedding of primary (baby) teeth and primary and permanent dentition eruption tables are also provided.

     

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