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Maternal and Child Health Bureau logoA Health Professionals Guide to Pediatric Oral Health Management
HomeModuleModule 1: An Introduction to Infants' and Young Children's Oral HealthModule 2: Managing Infants' and Young Children's Oral HealthModule 3: Oral Conditions and AbnormalitiesModule 4: Prevention of Oral DiseaseModule 5: Non-Nutritive Sucking HabitsModule 6: Oral InjuryModule 7: Infants and Young Children with Special Health Care NeedsContentsGlossaryEvaluationHelp
Module 3: Oral Conditions and Abnormalities
Module Contents
Overview
3.1 Recognizing Healthy Teeth, Soft Tissues, and Facial Bones
3.2 Healthy Teeth
3.3 Healthy Soft Tissues
Lips, Tongue, and
Oral Mucosa
Frena & Gingiva (current page)
Palate
Major Salivary Glands
3.4 Healthy Facial Bones
3.5 Tooth Conditions and Abnormalities
Dental Caries
Untreated Tooth Decay
Hyperdontia
Hypodontia & Anodontia
Hypoplasia
Fluorosis
Hypocalcification
Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Enamel Coloration
3.6 Soft Tissue Conditions and Abnormalities
Infections
Epithelial Cysts
Congenital Epulis
Natal or Neonatal Teeth
Eruption Cysts
Ankylogossia
Mucocele
Fibroma & Papilloma
Ulcers
Key Points
Post-Test
References
Additional Resources



3.3 Healthy Soft Tissues, continued

Frena

In infants and children it is common to observe strips of tissue extending from the oral mucosa to the tissues near the teeth. These are called frena and are located in the upper jaw, midway between the two front teeth. They should be pink, thin, and firm, with smooth borders.

Gingiva

  photo of healthy gingiva
    Fig 5. Healthy Gingiva


The tissue next to the teeth is called the gingiva (gums, Figure 5). It should be pink and should form a tight, smooth collar around each tooth. It should be moist and not spongy. If pressed, it should not bleed. During the transition from primary to permanent teeth, the gingiva may have rolled edges.

 


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